EN

Fasi Frazike

Easy Grammar

Fasile21 uses its alphabet consistently. It means that each letter always represents the same sound, and each sound in the language is represented by a single letter.

It tolerates a high degree of vowel variation that many languages ​​do not allow.

There is no distinction in vowe length and not recognized differences between nasalized and oral vowels. These differences almost always depend on the mother language.

Consequently, every word is read as it is written so you are able to pronounce it confidently, and when you listen to a word in Fasile21, immediately you know how to write it.

The letters and their sounds

LETTER, SOUND, NAME
A a, like the a in father, a.
B b, like the b in ball, be.
D d, like the d in dad, de.
E e, like the e in pet, led, rep, e.
F f, like the f in fat, left, fe.
G g, like the g in gag, ge.
H h, like the h in house, he.
I i, like the e in me, i.
J j, like the s in pleasure, je.
K k, like the k in kid, block, ke.
L l, like the l in lid, bill, le.
M m, like the m in mat, rum, me.
N n, like the n in nut, bun, ne.
O o, like the o in note, vote, o.
P p, like the p in push, cup, pe.
R r, pronounced with a burr, re.
S s, like the s in sing, bus, se.
T t, like the t in take, cut, te.
U u, like the oo in boot, u.
V v, like the v in vat, cave, ve.
W w, like the w in brow, ew.
X x, like the sh in ship, bush, xe.
Y y, like the y in yet, boy, ey.
Z z, like the z in zoom, buzz, ze.

Spelling example: kays = ke-alfe, a-alfe, ey-alfe, se-alfe.

Diphtongs

ay
Like the ey in Beyrut, or the long vowel i in fine or ai in Baykal.

ey
Like the long English a in mate or in fame or ei in neighbour.

oy
Like the oy in boy.

uy
Like the uoy in buoy, but pronounced as a single syllable.

aw
Like the ow in brown and in how or now.

ew
Like the ayw in wayward, but without the y.

ow
Like the ow in know.

Accent

For natural and better understanding, the accent falls on before the last syllable of words ending by vowels or / and semi-vowels (w and y).

Unstressed syllables are important in Fasile21, while English speakers often omit them.

Take care to pronounce each letter distinctly and clearly. There are no voiceless letters.

Examples

Lay naw palas simi linge.
They (females) do not speak the same language.

Un krome mas beli.
A more beautiful colour.

Lume di Sune.
The light of the sun.

Kari, vite belas!
Darling, life is beautiful!

Brile din lai vidorey portas ju tem sele!
The brilliance of her eyes brings me to the sky.

Masi perfi floru.
The most perfect flower.

Beves kafe, plis!
Drink coffee, please!

Dagasan hotogas.
Today it is too warm.

Zasme kantigas la.
The enthusiasm makes her sing.

La belijas.
She beautifies herself.

Kaw pluvos dagosan?
Will it rain tomorrow?

Vite belas. Ju laykas danse kay erge.
Life is beautiful. I like dance and work.

Ju esas palar: sete nilan kazis.
I might tell you that this never happened.

Ju, isi nistro, vitisi in rixawi rume.
I, a former minister, was living in a simple room.

Juy ismas di fuli evlige.
We are adepts at integrated development.

Manuy di ol nasey laykus prenar kay prenidar il intenasi linge.
People of all nations would like to understand and be understood by means of the international language.

Sete planidi linge travas par esprar ol aydey.
This planned language is adequate to express all ideas.

Word Order

The usual word order is subject-verb-object or agent-action-meta. But not obligatory. Are allowed the formulas SOV and VSO.

SVO
Marko vidas Maria.

SOV
Marko Maria vidas.

Nouns

There are four grammatical suffixes for nouns.

O: when representing a male living being. Mano: man.

A: when representing a female living being. Mana: woman.

U: when representing a living being without speccif sex. Manu: man or woman.

E: when representing an inanimate, concrete or abstract being. Mane: humanity, love: love.

Complementarity

In Fasile21 we have the possibility to express the idea of a complementary noun, using the suffix -at, as in vende: sell, vendate: buy; alfe: letter, alfate: reading.

Plural nouns

Plural nouns are indicated by adding -y.

Manoy: men, manay: women, pamuy: father and mother, alfey: letters.

Collectives

Just use the suffix -ir, as in aydire: set of ideas; fixiru: shoal (of fish); alfire: alphabet.

Personal pronouns

Ju: I
Vu: You (singular)
Lo, la: He, she
Juy: We
Vuy: You (plural)
Luy: They

Alternatively, gender pronouns can be accurately indicated as in jo: I male, ja: I female, jay: we female, loy: they male, lay: they female and so on.

Oblique pronouns

When acting as a direct object, the personal pronoun receives the particle li, as in Ju li lovas la. She loves me.

Possessive pronouns

Any pronoun can be transformed into a possessive pronoun by adding -den, as in juden: mine, laden: hers, juyden: ours, and so on.

Migo di Paul. Paul’s friend.
To indicate simple relation, di may be used.

Adjectives

Always end in -i, whether singular or plural, as in beli: beautiful, mani: human, mani kaley: human qualities.

Remark that when an adjective refers to a noun that has genre, like pamo and pama, we must maintain the full word, adding -i, as in: pama, mother, pamai: maternal.

Comparatives

Expressing equality.
Beli el Jane. As beautiful as Jane.

Expressing inferiority.
Min beli ril Jane. Less beautiful than Jane.

Superlative
Minogi beli. The least beautiful.

Expressing superiority.
Mas beli ril Jane. More beautiful than Jane.

Superlative
Masogi beli. The most beautiful.

Opposites

They are indicated by the suffix -aw as in beli:
beautiful, belawi: ugly; forsi: strong, forsawi: weak.

Demonstratives and Indefinite

This (here): Seti.
That (there): Dati.
All: Ol.
Each: Eji.
Many: Obi.
Any: Zari.
Few: Iton.
No, none: Naw, nawi.
Same: Simi.
Other, else: Altri.

Indefinites and demonstratives

One: Un.
Person: Persu.
Thing: Aje.
Hour: Hore.
Occasion: Vese.
Area, surface: Feyse.
Place, location: Loke.
Amount, quantity: One.
Manner, how: Ele.
Case, situation: Kaze.

Others

Several: Obi.
Certain: Serti.
Both: Bison.
Enough: Sufi.
Such: Eli.
Too much: Zaji.
Very: Ogon.
Only: Sol.
Whole: Fuli.
Simple: Simpli.

Questions
Used in the sense of nouns.

Kaw u?
Who (whatever the gender)?

Kaw a?
What female?

Kaw o?
What male?

Kaw e?
What thing?

Used in the sense of adjectives.

Kaw i? What kind or quality?

Used in the sense of adverbs.

Kaw al?
Why?

Kaw el?
Which way, how?

Kaw an?
When?

Kaw on?
How much? or How many?

Kaw is also used in other senses, like origin, beginning, action, state, and so on.

Kaw in? Where?
Setin. Here.

Kaw loy setinas?
Are they here now?

Naw. Loy setinos.
No. They will stay.

Kaw sete elpos?
Will this help?

Naw. Sete elpawos.
No. This will be difficult.

Kaw bukey bonas?
Are the books good?

Ley bonogas.
They are very good.

Kaw den vu?
Is it yours?

Sew, juden.
Yes, it is mine.

Kaw blui?
Is it blue?

Naw, blanki.
No, white.

Kaw asbi?
Married?

Kaw an genis?
When did it begin?

Dan 1999.
Since 1999.

Articles

In most of the languages, the definite article is applied as a prothesis, an improvised used commonly due to inner imperfections or anomalies not solved by the established grammar.

Remark that a considerable number of languages does not have articles. So, the bigger, inherent productivity of Fasile21, naturally dispenses this grammatical category.

No article is needed to be used when the articled word has a generic sense, as Ju laykas kafe. I like coffee.

Extensively, no article need be used before names, words used as names, abstract nouns or infinitives. For translation purposes, the article is implied, as in

Vite. The life.
Time
Before: Antan.
After: Posan.
Since: Dan.
In (hence): An.
Until: Tilan.
During: Duran.

Relations

About, concerning: Baw.
For, as a means of, in order to: Gol.
By, actor, author, by means of: Dun.
In company of: Kon.
Without, except: Sen.
Opposite, against, in spite of: Aw.
Approximately: Kez.

Conjunctions

And: Kay.
Both: Bison.
Or: Ow.
Either… or: Ow… ow.
Neither… nor: Naw… naw.
But: Sed.
If, whether: Kaz.
Then, consequently: Tam.
Because, in order that: Al.
Although: Graw.
After: Pos.
Before: Antan.
Since: Dan.
Till: Til.
While: Duran.

Numbers

Cardinals

0 zer, 1 un, 2 bis, 3 trin, 4 for, 5 pen, 6 sis, 7 sev, 8 ok, 9 naf, 10 dek.
11 dek un, 12 dek bis… 19 dek naf, 20 bisedek… 90 nafedek. 100 xen, 200 bisexen… 900 nafexen, 1 000 mil.
135 xen trinedek pen, 435 forexen trinedek pen.
7 435 sevemil, forexen trinedek pen.
1 000 000 un sisezer.
1 003 020 435 un nafezer, trinesiszer, bisedek mil, forexen trinedek pen.

Ordinals

Just add -ani to the cardinal word: unani, first; trinani, third.

Fractions, unity

Nafune: 1/9; for trinedek uney: 4/30.
Fayre: fire, fayrune: flame; sande: sand, sandune: grain of sand.

The preposition don, corresponding to of, is used to express the portative sense, as un bevile don vine: a glass of (filled with) wine; trin tasey don kafe: three cups of coffee.

Basic Operations

7 – 3 = 4
7 min 3 as 4

7 + 3 = 7
7 mas 3 as 10

6 / 3 = 3
6 div 3 as 2

6 x 3 = 18
6 ob 3 as 18

Verbs

Simple tenses

Present: Vu lovas.
Past: Vu lovis.
Future: Vu lovos.
Conditional: Vu lovus.
Imperative, volitive: Vu loves.

The verb endings are invariable. Personal pronouns may always be used to indicate the people. They are only omitted in the singular imperative, in the second person, the one who is addressed, as it is implied.

Ju lovas.
Vu lovas.
Lu lovas.
Juy lovas.
Vuy lovas.
Luy lovas.

Imperfect subjunctive

Indicating hypothesis

Kaz la venus, ju felsus.
Should she come, I would be happy.

Future subjunctive

Indicating actual fact

Kaz la kantos.
If she will to sing.

Participles

Passive

Igadi: that is made now (present).
Igidi: that was made (past).
Igasi: that makes now (present continuous).
Igisi: that have made (past).

In order to deduce participle-nouns, just make them nouns, as in lovaso, lover; loviso, ex-lover; kreiso, that created; juzado, defendant, the one that is being judged now. The verb to be is implied in the passive forms of the participles.

Present

Juy lovadi.
We are loved now.

Future

Juy lovodi.
We will be loved.

Past

Juy lovidi.
We were loved.

Conditional

Juy lovudi.
We would be loved.

Imperative

Juy lovedi.
We must be loved.

So, the lengthy constructions found in countless languages, like I have been loved and I was being loved, are reduced in Fasile21.

The preposition by corresponds to dun. Loved by God.
Lovidi dun Godo.

Future participles

Certainly, there are not many languages with such useful forms of expression when accuracy and conciseness are demanded.

Active

Igosi.
What is there to make.

Passive

Igodi.
What is there to be made.

More examples

Pagedi mone: money to be paid; resedi mone: money due.
Un Savoso, a Messiah (that will save). Juzoda, defendant (that will be judged).

Continuity

Extended actions are indicated by the -ul suffix.

Examples: palar: to speak, palule: discourse.

To indicate brevity or beginning of an action: genegritir: to exclaim.

To make

By means of the suffix -ig, we have beligar, to make
beautiful; rokigar, to petrify.

For the reflexive action, the -ij suffix is adopted, ijar, to become, rokijar, to become rock.

Some verbs

Let, allow, permit to: Permar.
Must, should, need to: Esar.
Want to, intend to: Volar.
Can, able to: Avar.
Know (how) to: Sofar.
Go to: Ivar tem.
Come to: Venar.
Expect to: Veytar.
Hope to: Espar.
Fear to: Fobar.
Prefer to: Mas volar.
Hesitate to: Owumar.
Dare to: Derar.
Threaten to: Menar.
Pretend to: Finjar.
Appear to: Aprar.
Try to: Trayar.

Adverbs

Concerning to cause, end in -al.

Kaw al? Why?
Al… Because…

Concerning to time, end in -an.

Nilan. Never.
Olan. Always.

Concerning to quantity, end in -on.

Ogon. Very much.
Iton. A little.

Concerning to place, end in -in.

Olin. Everywhere.
Nilin. Nowhere.

Concerning to way, end in -el.

Forsel. Strongly.
Belel. Beautifully.

In questions and whenever clearness demands it, the adverbs can be represented just by the root (the unchanged part of the word) as in fors or bel.

Comparatives

Adverbs expressing equality
Bon el… Well as…

Adverbs expressing inferiority
Min bel ril… Less beautifully than…

Relative superlative

Mini bel. The least beautifully.

Adverbs expressing superiority

Mas bel ril… More beautifully than…

Superlative

Masi bel. The most beautifully (among all).
Remark that when an adverb refers to a noun that has genre, like pamo and pama, we must maintain the full word, adding -el, as in: pama, mother, pamael: motherly.

Place and Direction

​Suffixe -in. Preje: the prayer; prejine: church, the special place for praying. For origin, din is used, as in La venis din Lisboa. She came from Lisbon.

Prepositions

In: In.
Sorin: On.
Posin: Behind.
Nirin: Near.
Saydin: Beside, up to.
Xesin: Next to, at.
Krosin: At the opposite end of.
Tawin: In front of.
Apin: Above.
Detin: On the right.
Goxin: On the left.
Intin: Between, among, inter.
Anglin: In the corner.
Entin: Inside, inner.
Awtin: Outside, out.
Subin: Under, bellow.
Tranin: Trough.
Din: From.
Temin: Toward.
Lawin: Along.
Sirkin: Around.

Examples

​Kaw tem vu ivos?
Where are you going?

Ju ivos tem Porto Alegre.
I am going to Porto Alegre.

Birdo voldis tem ente di rume.
The bird flew into the room.

Birdo voldis tem rume.
The bird flew to the room.

​Birdo voldis in rume.
The bird flew in the room.

Fanto entas in rume.
The boy gets into the room.

Fanto in rume.
The boy is/stays in the room.

La tripis tem Ewre.
She traveled to Europe.

Movements

​Represented by the suffix -iv, as in rapive: run; posivar: to follow; subivar: to go down.

Animal sounds

​Miow: Ketevose.
Bark: Dogevose.
Whinny: Orsevose.